School Library Media Programs
and Academic Achievement:
A Bibliography and Availability List

by David V. Loertscher, March, 2003
Updated June 19, 2003

The Gaver Study, 1963

  • Gaver, Mary V. Effectiveness of Centralized Library Service in Elementary Schools. 2nd ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1963 (out of print, find in many academic libraries or school district professional libraries).

The First Colorado Study, 1993:

  • Lance, Keith C, Linda Welborn, and Christine Hamilton-Pennell. The Impact of School Library Media Centers on Academic Achievement. Castle Rock, CO: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 1993 (available from LMC Source at under research)

The Second Colorado Study, 2000

  • Lance, Keith C., Marcia J. Rodney and Christine Hamilton-Pennell. How School Librarians Help Kids Achieve Standards: The Second Colorado Study. San Jose, CA: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2000 (available from LMC Source online at under research).

The Alaska Study, 2000:

  • Lance, Keith C., Christine Hamilton-Pennell, Marcia J. Rodney, with Lois Peterson and Clara Sitter. Information Empowered: The School Librarian as an Agent of Academic Achievement in Alaska Schools. Revised ed. Juneau, AK: Alaska State Library, 2000 (available for $10 from The Alaska State Library, PO Box 110571, Juneau, AK 98811). Executive summary and order information at:

The Pennsylvania Study, 2000:

The Massachusetts Study, 2000:

The Texas Study, 2001:

The Oregon Study, 2001:

  • Lance, Keith Curry, Marcia J. Rodney and Christine Hamilton-Pennell. Good Schools Have School Librarians: Oregon School Librarians Collaborate to Improve Academic Achievement. Salem, OR: Oregon Educational Media Association, 2001. Available in print from: LMC Source ( and online at:

The Scotland Study, 2001

  • Williams, Dorothy and Caroline Wavell. The Impact of the School Library Resource Centre on Learning. Library and Information Commission Research Report 112: Report on Research Conducted for Resource: The Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries. Aberdeen, Scotland: The Robert Gordon University for The Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries, 2001. Available at:

The Iowa Study, 2002:

  • Rodney, Marcia J., Keith Curry Lance and Christine Hamilton-Pennell. Make the Connection: Quality school Library Media Programs Impact Academic achievement in Iowa. A Research Project by Iowa Area Education Agencies, published by the Mississippi Bend Area Education Agency, 2002. Available at:

The New Mexico Study, 2002:

  • Lance, Keith Curry, Marcia J. Rodney, and Christine Hamilton-Pennell. How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children: The New Mexico Study. Sante Fe: NM: New Mexico State Library, 2002. Available for purchase from LMC source at under Research.

The Minnesota Study, 2003

The Missouri Study, 2003

The Michigan Study, 2003

  • The Michigan study has been completed and will be published late summer, early fall by Hi Willow Research & Publishing (at

The North Carolina Study, 2003

  • The North Carolina study, An Essential Connection: How Quality School Library Media Programs Improve Student Achievement in North Carolina done by Robert Burgin and Pauletta Brown Bracy is available at:

Other Research Reviews of Interest

Krashen, 1993

  • Krashen, Stephen. The Power of Reading. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1993 (available for sale online at

McQuillan, 1998

  • McQuillan, Jeff. The Literacy Crisis. Portsmith NH: Heinemann, 1998 (available for sale online at

Cunningham and Stanovich, 1998

  • Cunningham, Ann E. and Keith E. Stanovich. "What Reading Does for the Mind." American Educator, Spring/Summer, 1998, p. 1-8.

Summaries/Presentations of the Studies

At a number of the websites listed above, fast fact sheets, executive summaries, and PowerPoint presentations are available. The studies have also been summarized with presentation materials in:

  • Lance, Keith Curry and David V. Loertscher. Powering Achievement. 2nd Edition. Salt Lake City UT: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2003. Available at: under research.